On February 28, 2022, the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) food tolerances for chlorpyrifos are set to expire. This means growers will not be allowed to apply chlorpyrifos to any food crop after this date. Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphate used to manage insects in a number of fruit and vegetable crops. It has been on the market since the 1960s under trade names such as Lorsban, Dursban, Eraser, Govern, Hatchet, Whirlwind, and numerous others.
Corteva ceased production of chlorpyrifos products in 2020, though it is still available from numerous other manufacturers. Since the EPA is revoking the food tolerances but not actually canceling chlorpyrifos, it will still be available for a limited number of uses, such as Christmas tree and sod production.
In 2016, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released a number of new safety measures to reduce the risks of paraquat exposures to applicators. This includes:
Changing labels and other supplemental warning materials to emphasize paraquat toxicity.
Requiring training (every three years) for paraquat users.
Restricting the use of all paraquat products to certified applicators only.
Requiring closed system packaging for all non-bulk (less than 120 gallons) end use product containers of paraquat.
Earlier this year, additional changes to the paraquat label were released, including:
Requiring limitations on aerial applications, including a residential buffer.
Prohibiting pressurized handgun and backpack sprayer applications.
Requiring enclosed cabs or respirators for groundboom applications.
Increasing the Restricted Entry Interval (REI) for several crops.
The following document from the Association of American Pesticide Control Officials (AAPCO) provides an excellent summary of the new rules (including the bullets above) and answers frequently asked questions about the rules.
Just as a reminder, applicators must complete an online training every three years if they plan to apply paraquat. In addition, every applicator applying paraquat must have a pesticide applicator’s license. Applicators may no longer apply paraquat under the supervision of another certified applicator. Use this guide for step-by-step instructions on how to complete the training.
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a ruling in August to revoke all tolerances for chlorpyrifos, the active ingredient in Lorsban, following a lengthy review and legal battle.
The summary of the ruling states, “On April 29, 2021, the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit ordered EPA to issue a final rule concerning the chlorpyrifos tolerances by August 20, 2021. Based on the currently available data and taking into consideration the currently registered uses for chlorpyrifos, EPA is unable to conclude that the risk from aggregate exposure from the use of chlorpyrifos meets the safety standard of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA). Accordingly, EPA is revoking all tolerances for chlorpyrifos.”
Chloripyrifos has been used to manage insect pests in fruit and vegetable crops since the 1960s. This ruling is bringing its use to an end. According to the ruling, “This final rule is effective October 29, 2021. The tolerances for all commodities expire on February 28, 2022.”
We are still learning how this will affect the fruit and vegetable industry, but as of right now it appears growers will be able to use existing stock through the 2021 season.
From Clemson Fruit Pathologist Dr. Guido Schnabel and UGA Fruit Pathologist Dr. Phil Brannen.
Unfortunately, there appears to be a shortage of Captan products this year. For our fruit crop producers this may result in a change of strategy if and when reserves run out. Strawberry growers fortunately have the option to use Thiram for basic gray mold and anthracnose control. The two products are basically equal in efficacy but thiram has a slight edge over captan for gray mold control, but it is a bit weaker against anthracnose.
Peach growers rely on captan for cover sprays. These early to mid-season applications manage green fruit rot and possibly anthracnose. Fortunately, during bloom and preharvest we use different chemistries at our disposal listed in the spray guide. As we mention often, we prefer to hold other chemical classes, those for which Monilinia fructicola (brown rot) is most likely to develop resistance, for use in the pre-harvest sprays. During captan shortage, we recommend application of two applications of a QoI/SDHI (FRAC 7+11) product, such as Luna Sensation, Merivon, Pristine or Quadris Top (FRAC 3+11), for cover sprays as needed this year. Along with any remaining captan products, we hope that this will help us to limp along till next year, while still providing excellent control of cover spray pathogens. Sulfur alone in cover sprays, though sufficient for scab control, is not efficacious for green fruit rot or other diseases; if using a QoI/SDHI (7+11) product, these will control scab as well as green fruit rot, so sulfur would not be necessary for these applications. As always, please contact your local extension agent should you have questions.
This week, the SC Department of Pesticide Regulation (DPR) released a statement regarding the EPA’s cancellation of three dicamba products following a Federal Court of Appeals decision to vacate their registrations. The three products (Xtendimax, Engenia, and FeXapan), labeled for use with tolerant soybean and cotton varieties, have been a hot button issue since their initial registration in 2016. Concerns of off-target damage due to drift and volatilization have been at the center of this contention.
According to DPR, “Pesticide dealers in South Carolina who have existing stock of these products should stop all sales immediately and contact their dealer representative to facilitate a return to the registrant or other legal disposal. The EPA final cancellation order allows for Commercial and Private applicators who have possession of existing stock of these products to lawfully use them until Friday, July 31, 2020. After this date no legal uses of these products will be permitted and existing stock must be disposed of in a legal manner.”
As of today (11/1/19), there are only two months remaining in the current private pesticide license block. The block ends on 12/31/19. This means private applicators have until the end of December to earn the 5 pesticide credits (CEUs) needed to renew their licenses.
To find opportunities to earn credits, click on the “Upcoming Events” tab on this website or contact your local Clemson Extension office.
Once you have earned the 5 required credits, don’t forget to fill out and return your renewal paperwork to DPR. If you have 5 credits and do not receive renewal paperwork from DPR in the mail by the end of the year, please reach out to them. Their contact info can be found here.
Paraquat (most commonly used as Gramoxone) will have a new label beginning as early as August 2019. The new label requires applicators to take a training every three years. Currently, the training is only available online. The link below is a PDF of a step-by-step tutorial made to guide someone through the online training. Paraquat Training Instructions. The training and assessment should take around 45 minutes to complete.
Also, under this new label, every applicator applying paraquat must have a pesticide applicator’s license. Applicators may no longer apply paraquat under the supervision of another certified applicator. Contact your local Clemson Extension office about opportunities to get a pesticide applicator’s license.