Field Update – 11/11/19

Midlands

Justin Ballew reports, “The weather was a little cooler this week. The soil is cooling down also and is causing some purpling at the tips of the leaves of brassicas (a sign of phosphorus deficiency).  Roots have a hard time taking up nutrients in cold soil, so make sure your fertility is adequate. Caterpillar populations are still relatively low. We’re still seeing a few whiteflies, but their numbers seem a little lower this week also. Strawberries are looking great so far. We are about done with the fall crops.”

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Collards showing a slight purple tint on the tips of the leaves.  Photo from Justin Ballew

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The soil Monday morning (11/11) was just under 50 degrees.  This will cause root growth and nutrient uptake to slow.  Photos from Justin Ballew

Sarah Scott reports, “There have been several nights where temperatures dipped into the low 30s and we have had a few frosty mornings along the Ridge. Pepper plants are beginning to come out and late summer/fall crops wrapping up. Broccoli continues to be harvested along with kale, spinach, sweet potatoes and collards. Peach growers are preparing their orchards for planting new trees.”

Pee Dee Region

Tony Melton reports, “Last week, I found Clubroot on collards in a home garden in Florence and the plant problem clinic confirmed.  This is clubroot an awful disease of brassicas (greens, cabbage, etc.).  It was first found in SC in 2015.  That farm has a voluntary quarantine to keep it from spreading.  Please do not move plants or soil and cause it to spread.  It will stay in the soil for a long time (almost forever) and has the capability to destroy the brassica industry in SC.  Brassica and sweet potato harvest are at full speed because of the possible cold damage this week.

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Swollen stem at the soil line on a collard plant from clubroot. Photo from Tony Melton.

 

Field Update – 11/4/19

Statewide

Dr. Matt Cutulle cautions growers to be careful with late planted greens. “If getting out late with greens planting I would be careful with applying treflan pre-plant herbicides, as cold soil temperatures can facilitate injury.”

Coastal Region

Zack Snipes reports, “We are finishing up with summer crop harvests of cucumber, squash, and beans and harvesting fall crops like broccoli, collards, root crops, and lettuces. The rains and, at times, cooler weather have helped our fall crops. This past week I found some really cool beneficial insects in our Lowcountry brassica fields.  When scouting take note of any beneficials in your fields and know that they are providing lots of pest control for you.  Black rot in brassica has started showing up pretty regularly with the recent rains and lower temperatures.  Crop rotation, using clean seed and transplants, and sanitation (removing of diseased tissue) can help with control of this disease.  Many farms are seeding cover crops this time of year. Cover crops like clover can be grown to increase soil biomass, produce nitrogen, suppress weeds, and provide nectar and pollen for our beneficial insects.”

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Black rot showing up in brassicas after the recent thunderstorms. Photo from Zack Snipes.

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Planting cover crops. Photo from Zack Snipes.

 

Midlands

Justin Ballew reports, “We got some rain from thunderstorms last week and the weather has turned significantly cooler since. We are seeing a few spidermites on strawberries. Keep an eye out for those. We don’t normally see a lot spidermites this early, so don’t let them catch you not paying attention. Caterpillar populations are still low on brassicas and disease has been relatively low also. A few false chinch bugs have been reported on mustard and turnip. We’re cropping kale and collards and still picking some last minute fall squash, zucchini, peppers, eggplant, and tomatoes.”

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Two-spotted spider mites on the underside of a strawberry leaf. Photo from Justin Ballew.

 

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Still picking some last minute eggplant. Photo from Justin Ballew.

Sarah Scott reports, “Lower temperatures have brought a few light frosts to the area with scattered damage to tender vegetation. We continue to harvest broccoli,  bell peppers,  tomatoes,  eggplant,  sweet potatoes,  spinach and collards.”

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Broccoli head developing in the midlands. Photo from Sarah Scott.

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Bacterial soft rot on pepper. Photo from Sarah Scott.

 

Pee Dee Region

Tony Melton reports, “Bacterial leaf diseases of brassicas have been terrible this fall, maybe due to heat we had early  – processing greens had to be harvested early to meet grade.  I have found millions of  False Cinch Bugs on brassicas especially turnips – imidacloprid is a good control without killing beneficial insects.  Farmers (especially row crop farmers) need to be rotating from products containing chlorantraniliprole to other active ingredients – I have noticed a reduction of the length of control with these products.  Frost is here – protect.

Field Update – 10/28/19

Coastal Region

Zack Snipes reports, “Strawberries have been planted in the Lowcountry. Some rain throughout the week has really helped them take. Already seeing deer tracks in fields without fencing. I scouted a few fields and found enough juvenile spider mites to warrant a spray. We need to stay on top of the mites this season. Please scout your fields and take necessary measures to manage them.”

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Strawberry transplants are getting established. Photo from Zack Snipes.

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Deer tracks show that deer are already browsing in strawberry fields. Photo from Zack Snipes.

Midlands

Justin Ballew reports, “We had a few showers come through the midlands last week. Strawberry planting has wrapped up and the young transplants are getting established well so far, as we’ve had pretty favorable weather lately. Fall brassicas are looking great and worm pressure is still a little below average. Fall crops of cucumbers, tomatoes, peppers, green onions, eggplant, squash and zucchini are still being harvested.”

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Broccoli head developing well. Photo from Justin Ballew.

Pee Dee Region

Bruce McLean reports, “Brassica (cabbage, collards, turnips, broccoli, etc.) and strawberry planting has finished. The crops look very good. Okra and squash will finishing up soon. Downy mildew is still a challenge on squash. Brassica insect pressure has been relatively light, except for aphids which have been moderate in limited locations. Continue to scout regularly.”

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Cabbage looper feeding on a cauliflower leaf. Photo from Bruce McLean.

Tony Melton reports seeing lots of worms and moths. “I have seen sweet potatoes stripped by stripped armyworms, armyworms, loopers and velvetbean caterpilars in greens, and millions of corn earworm moths in peas.  Also false chinch bugs are loving the turnips, kale, and mustard.  Strawberries are getting established. ”

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Worms of all kinds are wreaking havoc in the Pee Dee.  Photo from Tony Melton.

Field Update – 10/21/19

Coastal Region

Zack Snipes reports, “A few rain showers and some cooler temperatures have really helped out our fall crops.  Collards, kale, and broccoli have really perked up this week and some early stuff could possibly be cut this week. Our worm pressure has not been terrible this year but that does not mean you can take a week off of scouting.  Strawberries have gone in throughout the Lowcountry and are looking great after some cooler temperatures and rain. If you have not put up your deer fencing for strawberries, get it out ASAP.  Each plant can be worth around $3, so one night of feeding can really cut into your bottom line.”

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Brassicas have really perked up in the lowcountry. Photo from Zack Snipes.

Midlands

Justin Ballew reports, “We got some much needed rain this past week thanks in part to Tropical Storm Nestor. This has our fall brassicas growing fast and looking great. We’re still seeing some whiteflies in brassicas, but the caterpillar numbers are a little lower for the time being.  Lots of strawberries were planted last week and they are developing well so far. The rain and cooler weather has really been helpful in getting them established. Strawberry planting will finish up this week for the folks planting larger acreages.”

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Collards are looking great after the rain and cooler weather.  Photo from Justin Ballew.

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Strawberry transplants that were set last week are already pushing out new leaves. Photo from Justin Ballew.

Sarah Scott reports, “Cooler temperatures and much needed rain are giving a boost to fall crops including collards, cabbage and broccoli. Bell peppers, tomatoes, squash, broccoli, sweet potatoes are still being harvested as well as hemp. Strawberry plants have been going in over the past couple of weeks.

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Strawberry transplants set a few days ago. Photo from Sarah Scott.

Pee Dee Region

Bruce McLean reports, “The recent rain from the remnants of Tropical Storm Nestor helped to improve dry soil conditions in the Pee Dee. This beneficial moisture should help the remaining cucurbit crops (yellow squash, zucchini, and cucumbers) and the okra crop through the final few weeks of the season. Planting of brassicas (collards, cabbage, kale, broccoli, etc.) and spinach are finished. Strawberry planting should be finished in the next week. Worm damage on brassicas has been light, but aphids have been plentiful in isolated locations. Be sure to scout your fall crops regularly.”

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Okra crop is really starting to slow down, but quality is still good. Photo from Bruce McLean.

Tony Melton reports, “Still in the middle of harvesting processing sweet potatoes – not enough rain to size them up earlier, now having to wait for soil to dry and more rain is coming.  Bacterial disease on turnips bad this year (maybe because of the heat), losing about 1/3 of yield because we’re having to harvest early.  Also, reduced stand on greens from the beginning because of the excessive heat at planting.  Also, bacterial soft rot is bad in the heat where irrigation and harvest equipment has spread through the fields.  A lot of moths (Hawaiian webworm) flying in fields. We’re spraying once, which is more than usual (with Coragen and similar products) to keep larvae out of greens.  Last of the pickling cucumbers are being harvested this week.”

Upstate

 Mark Arena reports early harvest of pecans may begin soon. “Here are some tips for pecan management for the month of October. Prepare for harvest by mowing the orchard floor and keep it free of limbs and other debris. Maintain adequate soil moisture. Treat all “mouse ear” nickel deficiency noticed. Lime, zinc, phosphorus and magnesium can be applied if deficient. Scout and treat aphids, mites and pecan weevils as necessary. Apply preventative fungicides as scheduled and be aware of pre-harvest intervals for all chemicals applied.”

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Field Update – 10/14/19

Statewide

Dr. Tony Keinath reports, “A new technical bulletin published online by Clemson University’s Land-Grant Press will help watermelon growers choose tactics to manage Fusarium  wilt. Options include partially resistant varieties, delaying transplanting until soil has warmed, grafting, applying fungicides at transplanting, and winter cover cropping with vetch.  See: Keinath AP. Integrated Management for Fusarium Wilt of Watermelon. Land-Grant Press by Clemson Extension. 2019; LGP 1022.

Coastal Region

Zack Snipes reports, “Strawberries are going in or will be going in very shortly here in the Lowcountry.  I want to remind everyone how important it is that deer fencing is put up.  Ideally the fencing should be put up BEFORE the strawberries go in the ground.  I see hundreds of plants each year destroyed by deer.  Assuming the value of that plant is around $3 (1.5 lbs berries per plant and $2 lb), it doesn’t take losing a lot of plants to really feel the financial loss. Please read an article I wrote about setting up and maintaining an inexpensive deer fence here.

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Deer feeding damage can cause significant yield loses to strawberries.

Midlands

Justin Ballew reports, “The weather felt more like fall this past week, but still no significant rain.  The very first strawberries have been planted in the midlands with a lot more planting expected this week.  The first plants were set just before the weather cooled down and the heat really took a toll on them.  95 degrees just isn’t good for strawberry transplants.  The current weather should be much more favorable for planting.  Be sure to set plants at the proper depth and overhead water transplants adequately.  Take a look at this Strawberry Growers Checklist for some good tips for fall strawberry management.”

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The 95 degree heat really took a toll on these strawberry plugs.  Photo from Justin Ballew

Field Update – 10/7/19

Statewide

Dr. Tony Keinath reports, “Growers who have “slacked off” on fungicide applications during the dry spell should resume biweekly or weekly fungicide sprays in areas that are or have received rain. For most fungal diseases, the amount of rain determines how severe the disease becomes. The more rain, the more fungicide sprays are needed. Note that many fungicide labels now state that the product may only be applied once every 7 days; 5-day spray schedules are going away.

Coastal Region

Zack Snipes reports, “Another hot and dry week in the Lowcountry. Non irrigated crops are really starting to suffer.  Many farms are waiting on rain to plant fall crops.  We are beginning to prepare for strawberry season but dry conditions are making it hard to lay plastic. Festivals, corn mazes, pumpkins, and haunted trails are in full gear in the Lowcountry.”

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Sunflowers can add extra income to the farm during the summer and fall seasons. Photo from Zack Snipes.

Midlands

Justin Ballew reports, “Last week was hot, but temperatures finally dropped over the weekend. It finally feels like fall.  Dry weather remains, though.  A few areas got some light showers, but it didn’t amount to much.  Growers have laid their plastic for strawberries and planting is approaching quickly.  Caterpillars are still very active in brassica crops and we are seeing some whiteflies as well.  Keep scouting and stay on top of the insects.”

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Plastic laid for strawberries. Planting will start soon. Photo from Justin Ballew.

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Whiteflies are showing up on brassica crops in the midlands. Photo from Justin Ballew.

Sarah Scott reports, “We have had spotty rain throughout the Ridge but conditions are still very dry. Cooler night temperatures are bringing some relief. Field preparation for new peach tree plantings are underway including soil fumigation.  With the recent discovery of the root knot nematode, Meloidogyne floridensis, in fields in Edgefield County, growers can request a PCR test if nematode samples test positive for root knot nematodes.

Lalo Toledo reports, “Phytophthora blight on bell peppers has been found in Clarendon and Orangeburg County. Phytophthora blight on peppers is extremely damaging and can result in total loss of the crop prior to the first harvest. Proper fungicide applications and resistant cultivars can be used to suppress this disease. Sweet potatoes are being harvested, as well as eggplants. White-fly populations have been found in broccoli and mustard.

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Phytophthora blight on pepper. Photo from Lalo Toledo.

Field Update – 9/30/19

Coastal Region

Zack Snipes reports, “It has been very dry here in the Lowcountry.  Our dry land crops are struggling and even irrigated crops are in need of more water.  I found a good number of melonworms this week in cucumber so keep an eye out if you have any cucurbits planted.  I scouted many collard and cabbage fields this past week and found very few caterpillars.  I saw a few isolated areas of harlequin bug damage so scout regularly to stay on top of those.  Our cowpeas are filling out pods right now and unfortunately I found some cowpea curculio in some of the peas.  The good news is that with our dry weather there are very few diseases right now.”

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Worms feeding on cucumber leaves. Photo from Zack Snipes.

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Cowpea curculio grub that was inside of a pea pod. Photo from Zack Snipes.

Midlands

Justin Ballew reports, “No changes in the weather from last week. It’s still hot and very dry. Growers are working on bedding fields in preparation for strawberry planting, though it’s difficult to form beds without any soil moisture. Hemp is budding nicely and harvest will probably start in another couple weeks. Caterpillars are still building in a number of crops. We’re seeing diamond back moth, cabbage loopers, and corn earworms mainly.”

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Field being prepped for strawberries. Photo from Justin Ballew.

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Hemp buds that will be harvested for CBD extraction. Photo from Justin Ballew.

Sarah Scott reports, “We continue to have hot, dry conditions with rainfall in scattered areas. Bell peppers, squash, tomatoes, watermelon, sweet potatoes and eggplant being harvested. Hot, sunny conditions cause some sun scald on bell peppers (photo). Peach growers are still keeping an eye out for San Jose scale. Although many growers do not do a post-harvest spray, scale are still active and if a grower has a particularly high population or an area where scale was bad this season, apply a summer oil, diluted dormant oil or a light oil like TriTek which could reduce populations for next year. Growers should be mindful that a full rate dormant spray may defoliate the trees, so scale down.”

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Sun scald on pepper. Photo from Sarah Scott.

Upstate

Andy Rollins reports, “Strawberry plugs are going through extreme transplant shock due to excessive dry heat.  Smaller sized plugs are more susceptible even in well watered fields.  Early morning overhead waterings of 30 min to 1 hour are recommended to help during first week to two weeks.  Other problems are being investigated, but are unlikely the main problem on these farms.”

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Newly transplanted strawberry plug experiencing transplant shock.  Photo from Andy Rollins.

 

 

Field Update – 9/23/19

Coastal Region

Zack Snipes reports, “Cooler days and nights have really helped out our crops as of late.  Fall planted brassicas are taking off and looking good.  Fall watermelons are being harvested this week and look good overall. I have seen more cucumber beetle damage on the rind of watermelons lately.  While there is nothing wrong with these melons, this damage can impact the marketability of melons.”

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Adult striped cucumber beetle causing damage to the rind of watermelon. Photo from Zack Snipes

Midlands

Justin Ballew reports, “The weather has been nice and cool, but it is real dry. We’re still picking squash, zucchini, peppers, tomatoes, and eggplant, and planting brassicas. Caterpillar numbers are building in brassicas.”

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Fall cucumbers planted behind tomatoes so they can utilize the existing trellis. Photo from Justin Ballew

Sara Scott reports, “We are harvesting zucchini,  squash,  cherry tomatoes and beginning bell pepper harvest. Conditions remain dry with little to no measurable rainfall.”

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Cabbage looper on a broccoli plant. Caterpillar populations seem to be high for the fall season. Photo from Sarah Scott.

Lalo Toledo reports, “Eggplant with symptoms resembling Cercospora leaf spot were found in Clarendon and Orangeburg county. A calendar-based protectant fungicide spray program combined with cultural practices can help reduce losses from Cercospora Leaf Spot. Cabbage whiteflies were also found in broccoli fields. Preventative application of insecticides to manage whiteflies is the best tactical management option. Refer to the vegetable handbook for recommendations.”

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Cercospora leaf spot on eggplant foliage. Photo from Lalo Toledo.

Upstate

Kerrie Roach reports, “Nighttime temperatures are finally indicating that fall might be on it’s way despite continued daytime highs in the 90’s. Currently listed in moderate drought with no rain in the extended forecast, the upstate is literally baking. The apple crop as a whole looks good, but red varieties are not coloring because of the heat, picking is about two weeks ahead of schedule, and with the lack of rainfall, moisture content is very low.”

Andy Rollins reports, “Muscadines are continuing to sell well in the upstate and are very high sugar compared to normal.  We are finishing with ‘Fry’ but still have ‘Supreme’ and ‘GrannyVal’ being harvested.  The crop will finish sooner this year because of higher than normal temperatures this month.  So if you wantem’ you better gettem’ because they’ll be gone soon.”

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Fresh muscadines ready to sell. Photo from Andy Rollins.

Field Update – 9/16/19

Coastal

Dr. Tony Keinath reports, “Watermelons with symptoms resembling cucurbit leaf crumple virus (CuLCrV) were found at the Coastal REC after Hurricane Dorian. Whiteflies were present before the hurricane, so they did not arrive with the hurricane. Laboratory confirmation is in progress. Preventative applications of insecticides to manage whiteflies is the best management option. CuLCrV also affects squash, pumpkin, and cantaloupe.

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Small watermelon leaves caused by CuLCrV. Photo from Dr. Tony Keinath.

Midlands

Justin Ballew reports, “It was hot and dry early in the week, but we got some rain Thursday and Friday and temperatures are a little cooler now. Irrigation was running a lot in the first part of the week and some crops wilted in between waterings.  Keep an eye out for diseases now that moisture and humidity has returned. Diamonback moth caterpillar numbers seem up be picking up in places as well.”

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Collards wilting in between waterings. Photo from Justin Ballew

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Diamondback moth caterpillar feeding on the underside of a collard leaf. Photo from Justin Ballew

Sara Scott reports, “It’s been hot and dry along the Ridge with no significant rainfall this past week. Fall fertilizer applications are going out in the peach orchards.”

Pee Dee Region

Bruce McLean reports, “Here we are in mid-September waiting for cooler temps, but having to endure some persisting summer heat. Luckily, the forecast is for some cooler weather about mid week. Muscadine harvest is coming to a close. Carlos and Noble grapes had good yields, this year. Doreen muscadines harvest should be just about to wrap up. Sweetpotato harvest is just getting geared up. Okra is still being harvested in good volumes. Cucumbers, yellow squash, and zucchini are a little light right now, but should be more plentiful in a few days. Peas and butterbeans are still available in limited supply. Fall planting of collards, cabbage, and other cole crops are being done now. Strawberry planting should be starting shortly.

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Okra still blooming and bearing heavily. Photo from Bruce McLean.

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Field of zucchini soon to be ready for harvest. Photo from Bruce McLean.

Tony Melton reports, “Processing sweet potato harvest has begun.  Pickling cucumber harvest continues.  Brassicas have been slowed in growth and lost some stand due to the excessive heat – hope it cools down.  Processing spinach was delayed by heat, but planting has now begun.

 

 

Field Update – 9/9/19

Coastal Region

Zack Snipes reports, “Hurricane Dorian caused some damage, but it could have been a lot worse.  There are some trees down and some fields are flooded.  We’re still figuring out the extent of the damage.  Be sure to take lots of pictures for insurance.  Remember, all produce that was flooded cannot legally be sold and should be destroyed.  I’ll send out damage paperwork to growers in the low country soon.

Midlands

Justin Ballew reports, “Areas west of Columbia got just a little bit of wind and almost no rain from Hurricane Dorian.  We’re still picking muscadines and summer planted squash, eggplant, cucumbers, and tomatoes.  The cooler temperatures and recent rain has greatly increased disease pressure.  We’re seeing lots of bacterial spot and speck in tomatoes, black rot and ripe rot in muscadines, and various leaf spots in hemp.  Stick to your disease programs.  Fall brassica planting continues as does strawberry land prep.

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Leaf spots on hemp foliage.  Photo from Justin Ballew.

 

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A field of kale for fall harvest growing well in the midlands.  Photo from Justin Ballew

Pee Dee Region

Tony Melton reports, “Too wet to harvest sweet potatoes or pickling cucumbers.  Water is standing in some fields.  The closer the beach, the worse it is.  It’s time to plant spinach.  Much of the collards, turnips, kale, and mustard were planted and up before rain started.  If not up before the rain, seed could be washed away.  Many waited until after the rain to finish planting.

Upstate

Kerrie Roach reports, “Apples are in full swing. Growers are picking ‘Gala’, ‘Golden Delicious’, ‘Early Fuji’, ‘Mutsu’, and ‘Granny Smith’ varieties. Croploads look better than expected thus far, and seem to be about 2 weeks ahead of typical ripening due to the heat and drought. Muscadines are starting to come in to the markets along with the last bit of summer crops. Many of the smaller farmers markets are slim with produce right now because of the transition to fall crops.”

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Apples are in full swing in the upstate. Photo from Kerrie Roach.

Andy Rollins reports finding some severe cases of anthracnose in late peppers. “The bright orange colored powdery substance are 1000’s of spores of the fungus Colletotrichum.  Leaf symptoms are not evident, just the obvious fruit lesions.   Hot rainy weather has persisted in the mountains and lack of good airflow caused this to be a major problem for some growers.  Even under the best spray program these problems can still exist if conditions for the disease are favorable enough.  Although some variety differences have been noted none are highly resistant to this problem.  A good spray program and good sanitation in keeping fruit picked is essential for the best control possible.

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Anthracnose lesions on pepper.  Photo from Andy Rollins.