Field Update – 7/13/20

Coastal

Zack Snipes reports, “Summer crops are all but about done. The afternoon thunderstorms, humidity, and heat have just about finished off the tomato and watermelon crops. Growers are getting fields ready for the fall season now. Consider putting up deer fencing now before crops are planted.

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A field of squash on Johns Island protected with a two-tiered poly fence. Photo from Zack Snipes.

Midlands

Justin Ballew reports, “We got some more rain early in the week and the sky was overcast most of the week. Downy mildew finally showed up here in cucumbers. Even though it’s been found all over the coast, it took a while to make it this far inland this year. The dry weather we had most of the month of June may have had something to do with that. Anyone growing cucurbits from now through the fall definitely needs to be applying preventative fungicides. Lots of fields are transitioning from spring crops to fall crops right now. We’re still picking sweet corn, tomatoes, peppers, eggplant, squash, zucchini, cucumbers, etc.”

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Dark-colored downy mildew spores on the underside of a cucumber leaf. Photo from Justin Ballew

Lalo Toledo reports, “Sweet potatoes are in the ground and thriving. Please be aware of any pest activity and disease activity. Weeds are becoming a problem, especially in organic operations. However, there are several options to suppress weeds. Please contact your extension agent for information on chemical and cultural practices. Hemp is having trouble taking off with so much heat and weeds are gaining ground on it. Peppers are doing great with some minor bacterial lesions.”

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Hemp field with nutgrass (organic operation). Photo from Lalo Toledo.

Pee Dee

Tony Melton reports, “Poured rain every day last week – awful.  Processing peas are ready to harvest but cannot get a dry period to burn down to harvest.  Need to get second crop processing peas planted before August if fields will ever dry out – don’t forget to control thrips early and do your best to keep deer out of fields.  Processing tomatoes & peppers are being harvested.  Pickling cucumbers are continually being harvested and replanted.  Sweet potatoes are planted, most have been laid-by, many have vines covering beds, and some are starting to size potatoes.  We may have some insect damage on roots since it is difficult to get bifenthrin applied and plowed-in.  Hopefully, the Lorsban will control insects, and since it is too wet to plow until the rain can wash the bifenthrin into the soil to keep the sun from degrading it.  Don’t forget the boron on sweet potatoes.”

Upstate

Kerrie Roach reports, “Peaches are the showstopper this week in the Upstate! Even with what appears to be late cold damage causing split pits and some varieties not to ripen, the peach crop is still booming. Apples are maturing on schedule and growers should begin harvesting early varieties over the next few weeks. With limited and spotty rain events over the last seven days, irrigation has been vital for vegetable producers…. but heat and humidity (despite the overall lack of rain) has increased the need for fungicide cover sprays, as we’ve seen various fungal activity picking up across the board.”

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Peaches are coming in and are looking great in the upstate. Photo from Kerrie Roach.

Field Update – 4/27/20

Late last week, the Clemson Agribusiness team sent out some updated information on the Paycheck Protection Program (PPP) and the Emergency Injury Disaster Loans (EIDL).  Be sure to take a look at that info here.

Coastal

Zack Snipes reports, “We had a few storms last week that brought heavy rains to the Lowcountry totaling 5 inches in some places.  The good news is that wind and sunny days have followed those storms which is helping to dry things out.  Highbush blueberries are in mid-harvest right now and rabbiteye varieties are sizing up and may be somewhat early this year. Our strawberry crop has been disappointing this year in terms of yield.  I am seeing a ton of thrips damage in strawberry.  The threshold used for thrips is 10 per blossom.  More thrips information from NC State.  Tomato and watermelon growers need to be scouting for thrips, as problems will develop later on from infestations we are having now.  I found the first cucumber beetles (striped and spotted) on crops this spring.  We had terrible infestations last year on cucumbers and melons that made fruit unmarketable.  If you find these on your farm you need to develop a plan to manage them (first generation) right now.”

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Severe Thrips damage causes unmarketable fruit. Photo from Zack Snipes.

Midlands

Justin Ballew reports, “We had really nice weather last week and crops are growing very well. Strawberry harvest volumes are still good, but it appears bloom is slowing down in some fields.  Thrips pressure has been high recently and we’re seeing damage on some berries as a result.  If thrips are present, they can be found in the flowers or under the cap leaves of developing berries. If you’re seeing lots of damage, an application of Radiant may be needed. Brassicas are growing quickly right now. We’re still seeing high pressure of diamondback moth caterpillars.  Be sure to rotate insecticide MOA’s when treating for DBM.  If you suspect a population of DBM has developed resistance to one or more insecticides, let us know and we can arrange to test that population.”

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Thrips damage is characterized by a bronze color and cracks in the skin of the berry. Photo from Justin Ballew

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A young broccoli head, about an inch and a half wide, beginning to form. Photo from Justin Ballew

Pee Dee

Bruce McLean reports, “Strawberries, strawberries! Strawberries are coming off very well, right now. Quality is for-the-most-part very good, although last week’s showers did cause some water damaged fruit in some locations. Blueberry harvest should begin later this week. Volumes will be very light for the first week or so but should pick up soon. Muscadines are looking good, so far. Carlos variety is just beginning to bloom. Vegetables are still being planted heavily. Potatoes and greens are looking very good.”

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Pandorus Sphinx Moth hanging out in the muscadine vineyard at Pee Dee REC. Photo from Bruce McLean.

Tony Melton reports, “Late peach varieties have a short crop, early ones are ok.  Strawberry glut is over now producing a normal crop of smaller fruit.  Early large crop with big fruit was a large strain on the plants.  Thank goodness for these cool temperatures allowing flowers to set which should give us a good set into June.  Beans, cucumbers, and peas are slow due to these cool temperatures and wind.  Some having damping-off problems and applying Quadris or potassium phosphide now.  Mowing tops of sweet potatoes in the beds now and will be planting in a week or so.  Yellow margined beetle on brassicas getting worse in parts of the Pee Dee – look for the ugly small larvae eating leaves – easy to see.”

Upstate

Andy Rollins reports, “We are finding San Jose scale on peach in the upstate.  Crawling stage is out now and sprays are recommended for this pest.  It can when build up and completely kill a block of peach trees.  It is worse on late-season varieties.  Movento, Esteem, and Centaur are all labeled on this crop for that pest.  Make sure to remove completely dead limbs before spraying, if possible, and make sure you get extremely good coverage.  200 gallons of total spray solution is recommended to achieve that goal.”

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San Jose scale on a dead peach limb. Photo from Andy Rollins.

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Be sure to remove dead limbs prior to spraying for San Jose scale.  Photo from Andy Rollins.

 

Field Update 2/24/20

Coastal

Zack Snipes reports, “As probably guessed the topic of the day is the 2 nights of sub 32F temperatures.  Most folks were able to cover their strawberries and hopefully, the row covers did their jobs.  I know in some places temperatures lower than 25F were seen.  The blueberry crop took the biggest blow.  Many of our rabbiteye types were ahead of schedule with the warm weather and were almost in full bloom or close to it when the cold nights came in.  I have seen several pictures from several farms that have a good bit of damage.  It is important to get fungicides out sometime this week as we have the perfect storm for a disease outbreak (warmer temperatures, wet weather, dead plant tissue, disease inoculum).  Recently planted brassicas are showing some damage but should grow out of it.  Only time will tell the extent of the cold damage.

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Strawberries are in their most vulnerable state when they are in full bloom as seen here. Photo from Zack Snipes.

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Small green fruit are a little more tolerant of cold temperatures although this fruit has some freeze damage and will decay if left on the plant.  Photo from Zack Snipes.

Midlands

Justin Ballew reports, “We had plenty of rain last week and two cold nights this weekend.  It got to 28 Saturday morning and 29 Sunday morning at my house.  Strawberries were all covered, so they were protected, but now we’re getting to where we need to get the row covers off to make a fungicide application.  The rain and the threat of near-freezing temperatures this week is holding us back from getting that done.  Bees won’t able to get to the flowers for pollination either until we get the row covers off.  As soon as we’re able, we need to remove dead flowers, leaves, and fruit from the plants also.

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Water pooling in a collard field during the rain Thursday (2/20).  Photo from Justin Ballew.

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Strawberries split open to show cold damage.  The strawberry on the bottom is healthy and the two on top have varying degrees of discoloration and necrosis.  If not removed from the field, these two damaged berries will become a source of botrytis inoculum. Photo from Justin Ballew.

Sarah Scott reports, “Wet weather is still prevalent and temperatures have dipped below freezing a couple of nights this past week. Warm weather earlier in the month began to push peach trees into a bit of an early bloom so we are watching for cold injury now. It is still too early to tell if the weather will affect the crop.

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The left photo shows a brown pistil, most likely damaged by below freezing temperatures while the bloom in the right photo had a pistil that is still green and probably undamaged. Photo from Sarah Scott

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Workers use flail mowers to grind up smaller pieces of pruned limbs in row middles throughout peach orchards. Breaking down the material is helpful in nutrient recycling as well as speeding decomposition to reduce spore production from fungal pathogens.  Photo from Sarah Scott.

Pee Dee

Tony Melton reports, “Rain won’t stop for us to get greens/cabbage/collards planted.  Transplants are having to be held back as much as possible so they won’t get too leggy.  Some growers got their sweet potato beds planted in real sandy fields.  Most strawberry growers have started covering to save fruit.  Remember that covering encourages spider mites and fruit rots.”

Upstate

Kerrie Roach reports, “After a couple weeks with cooler temperatures, chill hours for the Upstate fruits crops (apples & peaches) are looking good. The dry weekend was too good to be true as we are getting more rain today. The forecast calls for dry weather the rest of this week. Hopefully, we can start getting into fields for prep work and early plantings for market growers.