Weekly Field Update – 11/22/21

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Coastal Region

Rob Last reports, “Crops are continuing to develop well with few insect or disease problems to press. The disease pressure may increase given the welcome rainfall forecast today. Please remember to scout regularly and thoroughly. Problems caught early are easier to manage.”

Midlands

Justin Ballew reports, “We enjoyed the beautiful fall weather last week. Growers are harvesting lots of brassicas right now. Thanksgiving is a big time for collard sales, so folks are going to be busy over the next few days. Most brassicas look great. We haven’t had much rain this fall, so disease is very low. Caterpillar pressure is high in some places. Just a reminder, diamondback moths can develop insecticide resistance very quickly. Monitor population levels closely and always base treatment decisions on thresholds. Do not spray just because it’s been 7 days since the last application. Make sure the population level justifies the application. Also, avoid spraying the same material twice within a 30 day period and NEVER use a pyrethroid or organophosphate when caterpillars are the only pests present.”

Insecticide resistance to multiple modes of action has allowed the diamondback moth population in this field to cause severe damage. Multiple pyrethroid and organophosphate applications have also wiped out beneficial insects. It is unlikely a field like this can recover. Photo from Justin Ballew.

Phillip Carnley reports, “Just like much, if not all the state, it has been exceptionally dry in Orangeburg and Calhoun counties. Despite that, crops are looking good and growing well. Strawberries here are a little behind like much of the state due to late planting, but thanks to being dry, we are not seeing any fungal problems yet. I have seen some death/decline of crowns due to J rooting, but that has not been significant. There have been some flaring populations of diamondback caterpillars in collards exacerbated by the use of broad-spectrum insecticides, which left few to no beneficials in the field. When dealing with diamondback caterpillars, make sure to scout early and often and use more targeted MOA’s to give your beneficial insects a helping hand. One or two applications of the various broad-spectrum insecticides can be detrimental and cause a boom in DBM populations.

J-rooting kept this strawberry plug from getting established. J-rooting is one of the most common reasons plants fail or are slow to get established. Photo from Phillip Carnley.
Severe damage from diamondback moth in collards. Photo from Phillip Carnley.

Weekly Field Update – 11/15/21

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Coastal Region

Rob Last reports, “Crops in the area are developing well, with few disease problems. In brassica crops, we are still seeing increased insect pressure from diamondback moths and whiteflies. Please remember to rotate insecticides with different modes of action. Following cooler weather, some brassicas are displaying some reddening to the leaves. This phenomenon often concerns the plant closing down phosphorous uptake. It is not necessarily indicative of a phosphorous deficiency in the soil. Generally speaking, the plants will ‘green up” as the temperatures increase.”

Midlands

Justin Ballew reports, “It was a little warmer last week, though we had some cool nights. We got a little rain (.3” at my house) and we could use more. Strawberries are continuing to get established and are looking decent so far. Some folks have opted to cover their plants for a couple weeks to accumulate more growing degree days. I’m glad to see that since we planted late and it’s been cool. I’ve already seen some deer feeding damage. It doesn’t take them long to find the plants once new leaves start growing. Get fencing in place before deer feeding begins. I don’t know of any repellants that work as well as a fence.”

This plant just barely had enough time to push out a couple new leaves before the deer found it. Photo from Justin Ballew.

Sarah Scott reports, “We’ve had some areas of patchy frost just as some of the crops like eggplant and bell peppers are starting to wind down. Broccoli harvest is wrapping up and this season turned out to be a good one. Fumigation has been done on fields where new peach trees will be planted and growers are plowing and preparing for planting. “

Broccoli that is ready for harvest. Photo from Sarah Scott.
Peach trees with fall color. Photo from Sarah Scott.
Cover crops in between rows to be hilled for new peach plantings. Photo from Sarah Scott.

Upstate

Kerrie Roach reports, “With the first real cold nights over the weekend, things have officially begun to crawl as far as production is concerned. However, soil sampling, land preparation, and winter chores have started off with a bang. This is a great time to get things going with soil sampling. Results are typically available within 2 weeks and adjustments can be started and made in time for planting. Check out the Clemson site for information, or contact your agent for help!”

Andy Rollins reports, “I am still in process of inspecting all upstate strawberry plantings for this new year of production. Plants should have leaves with three leaflets (like clover). Occasionally, you may find one plant here or there with four leaflets, this is within reason. You should not be finding nearly every plant with this abnormal growth. There can be several issues that can cause this. The use of runner stimulating hormones by plant producers and phytoplasmas (a type of bacteria) can also cause this effect. I have only found this problem on ‘Camino Real’ on one farm this year, but I am looking everywhere.  In a previous year when this was found, we later had deformed berries that looked more like a mangled up leaf than a strawberry. We have had some more root rot issues in fall crops and we are preparing new ground for peach plantings now.”

Strawberry leaves with 4 leaflets are ok if seen occasionally, but it is not normal to see this on every plant. Photo from Andy Rollins.

Weekly Field Update – 11/8/21

Over the next few weeks, we will be evaluating the SC Grower site to determine any updates or upgrades that are necessary to better serve our viewers. To help with this, we would love to have your feedback. This quick survey should take about 5 minutes to complete and is completely anonymous. Please take a minute to share some of your likes, dislikes, or suggestions for the SC Grower.

Coastal Region

Zack Snipes reports, “It feels like winter showed up this past week with cold, windy, gloomy days. Most, if not all of our strawberries have been planted. With the cool weather showing up and our later planting dates this year, some growers are opting to use lightweight row covers to push their plants along a little bit. A few things to remember if you opt to do this: use lightweight row covers, make sure all disease and insect issues are taken care of before putting the row covers on, and only leave them on for a few weeks. We want to encourage some growth of our plants but we don’t want our plants getting too big and succulent going into the winter. I visited several farms this week with poor quality fruit trees. A common thread between these plantings is planting depth. In our sandy soils, plants will sink over time so as Phillip Carnley says, “plant them proud,” which means plant them higher than you think they should be planted. Over time, the plants will settle into the correct depth. Pecans, blueberries, and other crops will not grow roots from their trunks, so over time the plant will rot and pathogens will get into the plant when they are buried too deep.”

A pecan tree that was planted 8 inches too deep. Photo from Zack Snipes.
A blueberry plant that has sunk over the past few years. Photo from Zack Snipes.

Midlands

Justin Ballew reports, “It got pretty chilly towards the end of last week and we saw a light frost in a number of places this morning (11/8). Brassica crops are looking great right now. Diamondback moths are still out there, but they seem to be manageable at the moment. There is a little black rot here and there, though we haven’t had enough rain for it to really be a serious problem. Strawberries are getting established. We didn’t accumulate many growing degree days (GDD) last week since it got so cool. Again, I would think about using row covers for a week or two this month to help accumulate GDDs. Here’s a good Strawberry Grower Checklist from the Small Fruit Consortium that has some great tips for the fall season.”

Collards are looking great in the midlands right now. Soon, we’ll be picking a lot for the Thanksgiving market. Photo from Justin Ballew.

Pee Dee

Bruce McLean reports, “Vegetable crops are looking good around the Pee Dee. Some of the aphid and spider mite pressure that was seen earlier last week has subsided a bit. But, be sure not to drop your guard. Their populations can easily bounce back in dry conditions. Stink bugs are still present in pretty high numbers. Stink bugs (in high enough numbers) can cause damage to brassicas. So, be sure to scout and treat, accordingly. Strawberries are looking good for the most part. Unfortunately, I have seen a good bit of j-rooting in bareroot strawberries. J-rooting is a condition where the roots of the bareroot plant are improperly planted. Instead of the roots of the plant being planted vertically in the soil (where the planting hole is dug to an adequate depth for the length of roots of the transplant), the roots are buried horizontally just below the surface of the soil, often with the root tips exposed. This will severely impact the yield of your plant and if done repeatedly across the field, the yield for the entire planting. And, yield is money. It’s a lot easier to take a few minutes prior to planting to show your workers the proper way to plant bareroot plants. Providing them with a (bareroot) planting bar/tool and showing them how to properly use it helps to eliminate these problems. Checking behind your workers is important to ensure that they are continuing those planting techniques. Coming back and trying to fix a problem (if it is severe) is not realistic and cost prohibitive, because it would mean that every plant might need to be inspected and possibly replanted. Research out of California has shown that j-rooting can reduce yields 18.5%. That’s a pretty big bite of the apple (… or in this case, the strawberry) that the grower can likely lose right off the top. I don’t know too many growers that can handle that much of a loss on such a high value crop.”

Severe j-rooting on bareroot strawberry plant. Photo from Bruce McLean.

Weekly Field Update – 10/11/21

Statewide

There are some reports that anthracnose may be issue in strawberries this year. In addition, we are continuing to look out for the new disease, Neopestalotiopsis. Clemson Plant Pathologist Guido Schnabel has recommended applying Zivion S (natamycin) via preplant dip to help prevent these diseases. Dr. Schnabel provided the following instructions:

Mixing Instructions. Add Zivion S while stirring to the volume of water to be applied, or to a smaller volume that is then added to more water to make the expected final volume. Continuously stir the treatment solution unless it is to be applied immediately.
Application Time. Apply prior to plant as a preplant transplant root or whole plant dip treatment. Do not apply after or to harvestable commodities.
Application Rate. Root or whole plant dip: mix 6-12 fl. oz. (0.04 – 0.08 lbs a.i.) of Zivion S per 10 gallons of water. Dip plants for a minimum of 2 minutes, but no more than 5 minutes. Plant treated plants after dip application.

To find Zivion contact Nelson Jameson at 800-826-8302.

Coastal Region

Rob Last reports, “We are progressing well with preparations for strawberry planting. Some Plants are due to be delivered this week. Remember, if fumigants have been used, check to ensure the products have dissipated to prevent damage to the transplants. The same is true to make sure planting restrictions on any pre-emergence herbicides applications are observed. Always refer to the label. Finally, remember to check your plants carefully for pest and disease inoculum from the nursery. Planting any disease or pest-infected plants will lead to a more challenging. If you require any help, please reach to Extension Agents.”

Zack Snipes reports, “I thought I had moved to Seattle last week with all the rain and dreary weather. We have a good week of weather coming up and I expect that everyone will be busy in the fields transplanting greens, finishing laying plastic, and continuing the harvest of fall crops. Watermelons, squash, and winter squash are being harvested this week. Downy mildew is loving this weather and is on basil, squash, cucumbers, winter squash, and cantaloupe. I have seen many freshly transplanted fields with black rot in brassica. This disease shows up every time we plant brassica. It is essential to transplant quality transplants. If your transplant supplier is sending you diseased plants, then visit our Seed and Transplant Supplier list to find a new supplier. You might be surprised how big of a difference it makes. Carolina Farm Stewardship Association is having a webinar this week on Tuesday, October 12 at 12pm on Ginger and Tumeric production in a high tunnel. Please email zbsnipe@clemson.edu for link and passcode.

Black rot with its characteristic yellow “V” shaped lesion. Photo from Zack Snipes.
Transplants that are yellow and have black rot symptoms will not yield like healthy plants. Photo from Zack Snipes.

Midlands

Justin Ballew reports, “We finally saw some sunshine this past weekend after a pretty rainy week. Caterpillar pressure has been high and lots of treatments have been going out. I’ve been seeing a decent amount of pathogenic fungi developing on diamondback moth caterpillars due to the wet conditions creating the perfect conditions for development. We’ve had a couple acres of strawberries planted and ordinarily we would be planting full steam ahead now, but strawberry plants are late coming in this year. Lots of folks are being told it will be next week before their plants come in. I’m also hearing reports that anthracnose may be a problem from nurseries this year. As a result, we are strongly recommending a fungicide dip on transplants before planting to combat this and any potential infections from the new disease Neopestalotiopsis. See Dr. Schnabel’s comments about Zivion above.”

This diamondback moth caterpillar’s corpse is covered in white fungal growth. The recent wet conditions have provided the perfect environment for entomopathogenic fungi development. Photo from Justin Ballew.

Phillip Carnley reports, “Cucumbers are finished in Orangeburg and Calhoun counties. Fall greens are in full swing with some pressure from DBM with the occasional looper. Growers are bedding strawberry fields and applying their pre’s. We have seen heavy infestations of gummy stem blight in fall watermelons, as well as spider mite damage in blackberries.”

Gummy stem blight has been bad in watermelons this fall. Photo from Phillip Carnley.
Yellowing from spider mite feeding in blackberry. Photo from Phillip Carnley.

Sarah Scott reports, “Tree removal and field prep for new peach installations are happening around the ridge. Strawberry plants are being planted now and got a good watering in with last weeks rain. Fall vegetables are looking good, growers should keep up with scouting for disease issues in the field following the week of wet and humid weather.

Tree removal and preparations for new planting are going on now along the Ridge. Photo from Sarah Scott.
Fall tomatoes are looking great. Photo from Sarah Scott.

Upstate

Andy Rollins reports, “I am busy scouting new strawberry plantings this past week. Be on the look out for leaf diseases of plants but also check roots thoroughly for discoloration. When planting make sure crowns are still visible after planting. We are also preparing ground for new peach production going in. We are still picking a few muscadines, but that will be finishing pretty soon.”

Fungal infection on a newly planted strawberry leaf. All plantings need to be looked after carefully for the new disease Neopestalotiopsis. Photo from Andy Rollins.

Weekly Field Update – 9/20/21

Coastal Region

Rob Last reports, “Fall cucurbit crops, including cantaloupes, and watermelons are ripening and approaching harvest. Disease pressure from powdery mildew and gummy stem blight have really increased significantly over the last week. Maintaining a tight spray program will be key to managing disease. As we look forward to strawberry planting land is being prepared. If you are planning to fumigate, make sure the plant back interval between fumigation application and planting is maintained. A good test can be to plant some lettuce seed in the treated area. When lettuce germinates, the risk of damage from fumigation is reduced. Finally, on any remaining fall plantings, consider using a labeled pre-emergent herbicide to help with weed management. Once the crop and weeds emerge, options are drastically reduced.

Zack Snipes reports, “Land is being prepared and fall crops are going in around the Lowcountry. Early fall crops look better with the slightly cooler temperatures and periodic rain. We are wet in some parts. I am seeing lots of bacterial spot in the fall tomato crop. We have good herbicide management plans for greens, but folks will need to take advantage of pre-emergents now.”

Bacterial spot is bad this fall due to the consistent rain. Photo from Zack Snipes.

Midlands

Justin Ballew reports, “This past week was fairly rainy. There are several fields that are pretty soft, even some sandy fields. Folks are still planting brassicas for the fall and they are looking really nice right now. Strawberry growers are also getting prepped to fumigate and lay plastic. We’ve been seeing a lot of damping off (Pythium) in young cucurbits and some brassicas lately. The wet weather is definitely creating the perfect conditions for this. A few things that can be done to help minimize damping off include planting on plastic beds, planting at the proper depth (just deep enough to cover the plug with native soil), rotating fields wisely (tomatoes are a host for Pythium), and using a fungicide at planting may also make sense when environmental conditions are right for Pythium development.”

When transplants are set deep like the one pictured here, the moisture in the soil creates favorable conditions for Pythium to develop all the way up the stem. Instead, set transplants just deep enough to cover the plug with native soil. Photo from Justin Ballew.

Phillip Carnley reports, “Cucumber production is in its final stages here in Orangeburg and Calhoun counties with most growers close to or in the process of harvesting. There is still a noticeable amount of cucurbit downy mildew, but due to the dryer weather it has been easier to keep in check. Sweetpotatoes are currently being dug with yields looking to be fairly good. There have been a few issues with wireworm damage in sweet potato fields with the majority of damage being seen on the lighter colored tubers. Diamondback caterpillar is ramping up in brassica crops, especially in collards. Make sure to scout early and treat in a timely fashion, if your insecticide program is not showing the desired level of control talk with your local agent about scheduling a bioassay to screen your population’s resistance to different insecticides. Also be on the look out for black rot and other fungal problems in early transplants.”

Holes bored into sweetpotato tubers by wireworms. Photo from Phillip Carnley.

Sarah Scott reports, “We received some heavy rain in areas throughout Edgefield and Aiken Counties last week, up to 2 inches in spots. In preparation for October planting, plastic has been laid in strawberry fields. Brassica crops are being planted as field conditions allow. Late summer plantings of broccoli are starting to get some good size on them. Pepper plants that were put out in August are setting fruit that is starting to size up nicely.”

Strawberry plastic laid and ready to go. Photo from Sarah Scott.
These broccoli plants were put out on September 2. Photo from Sarah Scott.
Fall peppers are sizing up nicely. Photo from Sarah Scott.

Weekly Field Update – 9/13/21

Coastal Region

Zack Snipes reports, “We had a heavy downpour of rain last week surpassing 2.5 inches in some spots. I am seeing downy mildew in cucumbers and lots of gummy stem blight in winter squash and pumpkins. The worm pressure has lessened in the past few weeks. I am seeing lots and lots of black rot in transplanted brassicas. Inspect your plants before planting them to make sure the disease is not coming from the nursery. Once a brassica is planted in the field, there is not much we can do to slow the spread except hope that environmental conditions (rain, humidity) are not conducive to spread the disease. I am also seeing lots of early weed pressure in fall planted crops on both bare-ground and plastic. We have some very good herbicide options to apply preplant. Once you plant the crop, we have very few herbicides that can be used over the top of the crop. Right now is the time to get down strawberry herbicides before the season starts. As the old proverb goes: an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.”

Black rot on collard transplant (V-shaped lesion on the margin) just waiting for the right environmental conditions to decimate your yields. Photo from Zack Snipes.
A healthy stand of sunnhemp shades out most, if not all, summer weeds reducing the weed seed bank. Photo from Zack Snipes.

Midlands

Justin Ballew reports, “We received about an inch of rain (at my house), which we really needed. The temperatures over the last week have been very mild and it has started to feel like fall. Fall crops are doing well. We’re still planting brassicas and keeping an eye on caterpillars. Muscadines are being harvested now. Growers are reporting good fruit quality, but lower yields than last year. This is most likely due to the late cold weather that affected muscadine growers across the state. On pecans, black aphid populations and scab incidence are both high. It appears both of these pests are going to significantly reduce yield on sensitive varieties if growers didn’t stay on top of sprays.”

Pecan scab is severe this year. This disease can cause the tree to abort infected nuts. Photo from Justin Ballew
Black aphids are very small, but their damage is easy to see on the leaves. Photo from Justin Ballew

Weekly Field Update – 9/7/21

If you haven’t already done so, please take a few minutes to fill out a survey to share your thoughts with us on Extension meetings. We’ll be using the information collected to help plan meetings over the next year. It will take less than 10 minutes and is anonymous. Click here to get started. Thanks!

Midlands

Justin Ballew reports, “We’re getting a little dry here in the midlands and folks have been running irrigation a lot. We got a shower last night (9/6) at my house, but it didn’t amount to much. Our fall crops are looking really good right now. The dry weather is holding down disease though we are still seeing some insects, mainly caterpillars. Squash, zucchini, cucumbers, peppers, tomatoes, turnips, and other brassicas are all growing pretty well.”

Fall zucchini ready to be picked. Photo from Justin Ballew.

Phillip Carnley reports, “Muscadine production is in its final stages here in Orangeburg and Calhoun counties with most growers preparing to harvest or in the process of harvesting. There is still a noticeable amount of angular leaf spot on many vines, but this late in the season, it is not much of an issue. Continue to keep an eye on the population of grape vine borer with the use of traps. Also keep an eye on water, as it is needed for nice plump fruit.

Small amounts of foliar diseases are present in muscadines. Photo from Philip Carnley.
Growers are preparing to harvest muscadines in Orangeburg and Calhoun counties. Photo from Philip Carnley.

Pee Dee

Bruce McLean reports, “Soils are getting pretty dry in many locations. Even though dry weather would greatly benefit the muscadine growers, we could use a little rain. Vegetable crops are looking pretty good. Spider mite activity has increased over the last couple of weeks, especially on tomatoes. Bedding and fumigation (for strawberries) is getting ready to begin. Wine and juice muscadine harvest is upon us. Muscadine harvest is going to be a bit tricky this year. In many locations, half the crop is ready to pick and half the crop needs a little additional time, especially Carlos and Doreen cultivars. This is likely due to the late spring freeze that we experienced this year. Primary growth (that recovered from the freeze) is giving us a timely crop. Secondary growth (growth from secondary buds) is a little delayed. Watch harvesting too much under-ripe fruit. Under-ripe fruit does not contain the sugars or the juice, and will reduce your overall juice yield and total sugars.”

“Skirting the vines” is a common practice where the grower removes (by shearing) the excessive vegetative growth to allow the fruit to be more easily shaken from the vines during harvest. Photo from Bruce McLean.

Upstate

Kerrie Roach reports, “Things have significantly slowed down in the Upstate with the Labor day weekend signaling the true end of summer. The growers who are doing fall vegetable production are in the thick of things with insect and disease monitoring of utmost importance. I would typically be posting about apples and the harvest for this season, but the late cold event from April 22, 2021 has put a significant damper on local orchards. Growers have apples available, but u-pick operations are very limited, if not cancelled for this season. Orchard management is imperative even when the trees are not producing, and can be a good opportunity to get weed control and pest management under control.”

Weekly Field Update – 8/9/21

Coastal Region

Rob Last reports, “Generally speaking, we are in the change over period from spring to fall crops, with some fumigants being applied to next year’s strawberry plantings. If fumigants are to be used, make sure soil moisture is good and beds are firm to gain maximum efficacy. One thing we have observed in blackberries and blueberries in the area is the emergence of bark scale. Bark scale is a new pest to South Carolina and has previously been noted in ornamentals. However reports for Asia, where the pest is native, indicate the bark scales can survive on Rubus species.

Bark scale egg sacks and adults. Photo from Rob Last.

The images show the egg sacks and adults of the bark scale. The insects appear white and are very waxy, similar in appearance to mealybugs. The wax coatings can make management complex, preventing insecticides from penetrating the layer to be effective against the insects. The addition of crop oils to the pesticide solution may enhance efficacy by helping to strip off the waxy coatings. In blueberries, adults can be found underneath the exfoliating bark, again making contact with the insecticides more difficult. When crawlers emerge, they will be pink and barely visible to the naked eye, and monitoring will be easier with the aid of a hand lens. We will find crawlers hatching in April or May, with a second flush emerging in late summer. An excellent way to detect crawler movement is to wrap the branches in double-sided sticky tape to help to catch the crawlers. Contact insecticides can be very effective against the crawlers. Insect growth regulators may also be effective for management. Unfortunately, systemic materials such as imidacloprid appear to have little effect. Please get in touch with an Extension Agent to help with identification and management options.”

Bark scales have a waxy coating that helps protect them from insecticides. Photo from Rob Last.

Zack Snipes reports, “It’s wet in the Lowcountry. We are getting heavy rain showers what seems like everyday. This is making it hard to get equipment in fields to spray or prepare for fall plantings. I have seen some watermelon and tomato fields and they look ok considering the rain and soggy conditions. I saw some bacterial spot on pepper and expect to see the same on fall tomato with the rain and humidity we’ve had. Get out your preventative fungicides, if you can. I also saw some leafminer damage on these crops which is unusual in my tenure. It seems plants were impacted a few weeks ago but the new growth looks to be unaffected. Melonworms were found in cucumbers, so get ahead of them.”

Leafminers are showing up on tomatoes on the coast. Photo from Zack Snipes.
Melonworms were found in cucumbers this week. Photo from Zack Snipes.

Midlands

Justin Ballew reports, “This past week was a relatively nice, mild week compared to the week before. We had some rain to start the week and more to finish it out. Planting of fall crops continues and what’s been planted seems to be growing well. I looked at a few fields this week of seedling brassicas and I’m already seeing diamondback moth caterpillars and armyworms feeding. Remember to start scouting as soon as plants go into the ground. It doesn’t take many caterpillars to eat up seedlings and small transplants. Don’t forget we can run field bioassays to screen for insecticide resistance, so call us when you start seeing worms.

Diamondback moth caterpillars are already showing up on fall brassicas. Photo from Justin Ballew
It doesn’t take many caterpillars to eat up these small plants. Photo from Justin Ballew.

Pee Dee

Bruce McLean reports, “Vegetable crops are still harvesting well, for the most part. Other than cucurbit downy mildew affecting cucumbers and some powdery mildew affecting squash, there are no widespread vegetable diseases seen in the fields. Cowpea curculio is still widespread on peas and must be intensively managed (starting prior to bloom) to minimize damage. Spotted Wing Drosophila is still very active in late-season blueberries, with trap counts showing very high capture numbers. Grape root borers (GRB) emergence is starting to increase in muscadines. Trap captures for GRB is on the rise. Much of the state is outside the window of Chlopyrifos application for GRB… except on late harvesting cultivars (more than 35 from application to harvest) and maybe some wine grape cultivars in the Upstate. Pecan weevil emergence is just getting started (in pecans). Ground and lower canopy application of Carbaryl and/or a trunk application of Tanglefoot are effective methods of control. Monitor traps and weevil movement through September (especially after rains). Re-treatment of Carbaryl will be necessary and can be reapplied at (up to) 7 day intervals. Pecan scab is becoming more evident in pecan orchards. Also, fall armyworm numbers have exploded over the last two weeks. This is a pest that can affect a wide variety of crops.

Who is spitting in my muscadine vines? That is not actual spit. It is a sticky, frothy substance produced by the spittlebug for protection from predation. Photo from Bruce McLean.
This tiny insect is the spittlebug (what is inside the frothy spittle on muscadines and other plants). They feed upon the foliage of the muscadine vine and do not cause any noticeable damage to the plant. Photo from Bruce McLean.
Grapevine aphids populations on muscadines can be quite significant in late summer. They feed primarily on the foliage and late flower clusters. They seldom require chemical management except when present during spring bloom. Heavy rains and natural predation usually keep them in check. If extended periods of dry weather occur and their feeding does lead to noticeable problems (or if honeydew and sooty mold become evident on fruit and leaves) an insecticide application may be necessary. Photo from Bruce McLean.

Weekly Field Update – 8/2/21

Coastal Region

Zack Snipes reports, “Summer crops like okra are still coming in and looking good. We’ve had a lot of rain and some fields are soggy. More rain is coming. Some growers have started planting peppers and tomatoes. Remember to get out in the fields and destroy spring crop residue. Nematodes and other pests can really thrive on that old residue.”

Root knot nematode infestation on tomato roots. Photo from Zack Snipes.

Midlands

Justin Ballew reports, “Last week was by far the hottest week we’ve seen so far this summer. It’s been a very mild summer, so last week was actually a reminder of what “normal” is here. Tomatoes, squash, zucchini, cucumbers, and sweet corn are still being harvested. More fall brassicas, cucurbits, and some tomatoes were planted this past week. I haven’t heard of any reports of serious caterpillar activity yet, but remember to start scouting as soon as you plant. It doesn’t take long for caterpillars to significantly damage brassica seedlings.”

We’re still picking some good looking sweet corn in the midlands. Photo from Justin Ballew.

Upstate

Kerrie Roach reports, “Things in the Upstate, like much of the rest of the state, have been particularly hot and dry this last week. Irrigation has been of utmost importance as well as mitigation of disease and insects. As we move later in the season, things are starting to slow down, but now is the time to start prepping and planning for any of those fall plantings. For our smaller market growers, season extension by utilizing fall crops can be a great addition. Many farmers markets are looking for growers to sell in the early fall, and competition is slim, often making sales easier. Do your homework BEFORE plating and start looking now at local markets ending dates, vendor loads, customer preferences, and plan accordingly. Check out the SE Veg Crop Handbook for fall planting dates from many of your favorite crops. 

Weekly Field Update – 7/26/21

Statewide

The SC Specialty Crop Association is offering a new grant opportunity, the Enhancing Crop Packaging Cost-share Program. With this new cost-share program, growers can receive reimbursement up to $1,800 per grower for packaging needs. All that is required in addition to the application are copies of receipts used for purchasing packaging materials. You will also be required to fill out two surveys, one initially and one 12 months after submitting the application. All information is confidential. For more information, contact LauraKate McAllister. The application can be downloaded below.

Coastal

Zack Snipes reports, “We are in a summer weather pattern with warm, muggy days and occasional thunderstorms. Most crops have finished up or are in the process. Now is a great time to sit down and do some crop planning and field rotation planning. I collected many soil and root tissue samples lately and had them analyzed for nematodes. I was surprised at how many nematodes were present in the fields. Nematodes can interfere with growth, cause stunting, and lower overall yields. Sometimes the symptoms of nematodes can be very discrete so sampling right now is the best way to get a baseline of your populations and how to properly manage and rotate fields. If left unchecked, thousands of dollars are wasted before the first seed is planted into a field.”

Significant galling from root knot nematodes on a cucumber seedling. Photo from Zack Snipes.

Midlands

Justin Ballew reports, “It was another fairly mild week with high humidity and some pretty decent rain. Not much has changed on the disease front. We’re still seeing plenty. Growers are still prepping fields for planting fall crops. Some fall cucurbits and brassicas have been planted already. More are on the way. As soon as brassicas go in the ground, start scouting for worms. Remember, we can perform bioassays to screen for insecticide resistance in diamondback moths populations. Reach out to your local fruit and vegetable agent when you start seeing worms to schedule one.”

Bacterial spot is common on tomatoes right now. Photo from Justin Ballew.
Recently planted kale is growing well. Start scouting for worms as soon as you plant brassica crops. Photo from Justin Ballew.

Pee Dee

Bruce McLean reports, “Vegetable crops are harvesting well, with good volumes of squash, zucchini, cantaloupe, watermelon, cucumber, butterbeans, peas, tomatoes and okra. Sweet corn is beginning to wrap up. Late season blueberries are still being harvested in some volume, but will be finishing soon. Muscadines are sizing well. Vineyards that were only slightly affected by the Easter freeze are looking good and should have a good crop. Vineyards that were more significantly affected by the freeze are very short on crop this year. Grape root borer traps in muscadine vineyards are starting to catch moths in all locations. Spotted wing drosophila (SWD) trap captures (in blueberries) have dramatically increased over the past few weeks, showing that even in late season when fruit is becoming less and less plentiful, the fly is still very active and must be managed.”

Bucket trap baited with the Grape root borer (GRB) pheromone lure in muscadines. Photo from Bruce McLean.
Where we did not see significant damage from the Easter freeze, there is a good looking crop of muscadines. Photo from Bruce McLean.

Upstate

Andy Rollins reports, “I identified a major scale problem on peaches. A grower from middle part of state called about red spots on peaches. Earlier in the year across the whole state we had red spots on leaves. We found prunus necrotic ring spot on all of those samples last year but we are still unsure of the origin. In this case, it is something much different. This is an insect that feeds on the fruit and the tree itself. The adult stage of this insect doesn’t move but the crawlers do. After consulting with Dr. Brett Blaauw, regional entomologist for Clemson, the grower decided to go ahead and treat now. On Friday, he sprayed Movento at the label rate. There is great concern because with this high of a population, the life of the entire trees at risk. The plan is to follow that application with chlorpyrifos and oil at low rates after the leaves drop. You have to be careful when doing this as the oil can damage the next years bud crop if temperatures are too hot. We will be trapping using black electrical tape wrapped around the limbs then double sided scotch tape around that. We will then look for the crawlers on the scotch tape. This ensures money isn’t wasted killing a pest that has already been controlled.”

Red spots have been common on peaches this year. Photo from Andy Rollins.
In this close up of the bark on a peach tree, you can see the tiny, black and grey colored scales. Photo from Andy Rollins.